Diabetes: A General Overview:  Manage Diabetes and Live Longer.

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Health is wealth. It is a well-known proverb. But keeping in view the sedentary lifestyle and health hazards of today’s life, it is very challenging to keep check and balance on health.

What is diabetes: Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes.

To understand what is diabetes, you must know the system of the body and its working processes. Insulin is the milestone factor in diabetes. Understanding the working of insulin in the body is the most important in getting to know the diabetes process. When you eat, various food components decompose out of which sugars are the ones related to Diabetes.

The function of Insulin In Diabetes:

The function of insulin is of great significance. Insulin serves as a “key” to open your cells, to allow the glucose to enter — and allow you to use the glucose for energy.

 Malfunctioning of Insulin in Diabetes:

If insulin does not perform its function, blood sugar levels rise and cells of the pancreas cannot take up the glucose to the cells.

Types of Diabetes:

Mainly, there are two types of Diabetes. Type 1 and type 2 diabetes. But sometimes during pregnancy, gestational diabetes also develops.

Prevalence of Diabetes:

According to the World Health Organization:

  • The number of people with diabetes has risen from 108 million in 1980 to 422 million in 2014.
  • The global prevalence of diabetes* among adults over 18 years of age has risen from 4.7% in 1980 to 8.5% in 2014.
  • Diabetes prevalence has been rising more rapidly in middle- and low-income countries.

Type 1 Diabetes:

Type 1 diabetes (previously known as insulin-dependent, juvenile or childhood-onset) is characterized by deficient insulin production and requires daily administration of insulin. The cause of type 1 diabetes is not known and it is not preventable with current knowledge.

Symptoms of Type 1 Diabetes:

Symptoms include excessive excretion of urine (polyuria), thirst (polydipsia), constant hunger, weight loss, vision changes, and fatigue. These symptoms may occur suddenly.

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Type 2 Diabetes:

Type 2 diabetes (formerly called non-insulin-dependent, or adult-onset) results from the body’s ineffective use of insulin. Type 2 diabetes comprises the majority of people with diabetes around the world and is largely the result of excess body weight and physical inactivity.

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Symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes:

Symptoms may be similar to those of type 1 diabetes but are often less marked. As a result, the disease may be diagnosed several years after onset, once complications have already arisen.

What are the common Complications of diabetes?

  • Over time, diabetes can damage the heart, blood vessels, eyes, kidneys, and nerves.
  • Adults with diabetes have a two- to three-fold increased risk of heart attacks and strokes.
  • Combined with reduced blood flow, neuropathy (nerve damage) in the feet increases the chance of foot ulcers, infection and the eventual need for limb amputation.
  • Diabetic retinopathy is an important cause of blindness and occurs as a result of long-term accumulated damage to the small blood vessels in the retina. 2.6% of global blindness can be attributed to diabetes.
  • Diabetes is among the leading causes of kidney failure.

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 Lifestyle modifications for Diabetes:

Eat healthily. This is crucial when you have diabetes because what you eat affects your blood sugar. No foods are strictly off-limits.

  • Focus on eating only as much as your body needs. Get plenty of vegetables, fruits, and whole grains.
  • Choose nonfat dairy and lean meats. Limit foods that are high in sugar and fat. Remember that carbohydrates turn into sugar, so watch your carb intake.
  • Try to keep it about the same from meal to meal. This is even more important if you take insulin or drugs to control your blood sugars.

2  Exercise.

  • If you’re not active now, it’s time to start. You don’t have to join a gym and do cross-training. Just walk, ride a bike, or play active video games.
  • Your goal should be 30 minutes of activity that makes you sweat and breathe a little harder most days of the week.

3  Get checkups.

 See your doctor at least twice a year. Diabetes raises your odds of heart disease.

  • Learn your numbers: cholesterol, blood pressure, and A1c (average blood sugar over 3 months). Get a full eye exam every year.
  •  Visit a foot doctor to check for problems like foot ulcers and nerve damage.

4  Manage stress.

.  When you’re stressed, your blood sugar levels go up. And when you’re anxious, you may not manage your diabetes well. You may forget to exercise, eat right, or take your medicines.
  • Find ways to relieve stress — through deep breathing, yoga, or hobbies that relax you.

5  Stop Smoking.

 Smoking can hamper the normal functioning of insulin. Smoking also can make it harder to exercise. Talk with your doctor about ways to quit.

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